Spinal deformity – causes of occurrence, in which diseases occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment. Normally, human spine performs simultaneously support, motor and depreciation functions. It has slight physiological bends in anteroposterior direction (lordosis and kyphosis), which protect spinal column from injury during weight transfer, various exercises, and even while maintaining body in certain position during movement.
There are number of factors that can disrupt these functions and cause spinal deformity. Consequences of spinal deformity can be severe fatigue of back, disruption of internal organs (heart, intestines, stomach, etc.), problems with gestation.
Types of spinal deformity
Currently, there are about ten classifications of spinal deformity. They differ in type, location, direction and angle of deviation, degree of curvature, and so on. The most commonly used classification by type of deformation, which includes:
- Kyphosis curvatures: they represent increase in spinal curvature, manifest as stoop in area of shoulder blades, and, if untreated, lead to formation of humps.
- Lord’s curvature: they represent increase in curvature of spine anteriorly in lumbar and/or cervical region, manifested in form of protruding abdomen, beak head tilt, difficult to treat.
- Scoliolytic spinal deformity: is lateral bending of spinal column, manifested by decrease in volume of abdominal cavity, violation of location and work of internal organs; it`s customary to distinguish right and left-sided scoliosis, as well as S-shaped scoliosis.
- Combined curvatures: are different combinations of above forms (for example, combination of kyphosis and scoliosis), manifestations depend on nature of spinal deformity.
Also, spinal deformities are divided, depending on nature of origin, into congenital and acquired.
Possible causes of spinal deformity
Congenital spinal deformities occur due to intrauterine growth defects, congenital malformations of skeleton or connective tissue, cerebral palsy (cerebral palsy), and birth injuries.
Spinal deformities can be caused by injuries, hernias and tumors of spinal column, injuries of pelvis and lower extremities, flat feet, amputation of limbs, diseases of internal organs and musculoskeletal system. Actively contribute to development of spinal deformities weak muscular corset, overweight, lack of physical activity (physical inactivity), carrying weights on one side, prolonged and regular staying in one position in twisted position (for example, sitting at computer), furniture that doesn`t correspond to height and body weight (improperly selected desk or bed for a child).
Diagnostics and examinations
In order to determine cause of spinal deformity as accurately as possible, it`s necessary to conduct series of studies.
Diagnosis will help radiography – leading method for detecting spinal deformities. Depending on part of spine where deformity is possible, radiography of cervical, thoracic or lumbosacrococcygeal region can be performed.
Radiography of cervical spine with functional tests or radiography of lumbosacral spine with functional tests may also be required. In order to clarify diagnosis requires computed tomography, for example, CT scan of cervical, thoracic or lumbosacral spine. Magnetic resonance imaging will also help in diagnosis. Doctor may prescribe MRI of cervical, chest, lumbosacral spine, as well as MRI of two sections to choose from or three parts of the spine.
Survey may also require densitometry – study to assess mineral density of bone tissue, blood test for rheumatoid factor and molecular genetic research.